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Senin, 05 November 2012

macam macam text bahasa inggris


Macam macam Text Bahasa Inggris


1. PROCEDURE TEXT

Social function Procedure: To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions.

Text organization:
1. Goals ( the final purpose of doing the instruction)
2. Materials ( ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)
3. Steps ( a set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)

Language features :
• Use of imperative ( Cut…….., Don’t mix……..)
• Use of action verbs (turn, put)
• Use of connectives(first, then, finally)

Example text :
HOW TO MAKE PEANUT CRUNCH
What you’ll need :
v 1 cup of peanuts
v 3 cups of brown sugar
v 2 tablespoons of vinegar
v 1 cup of water

What to do :
Place the sugar, water and vinegar into a large saucepan.
Stir slowly over a low heat until the sugar is disolved
Add peanuts , increase the heat and allow to boil
Remove from the heat when the nuts have craked and the mixture appears golden brown
Allow bubbles to settle
Spoon into small paper patty cases or pour the mixture into a flat greased pan and mark into bite-size pieces.

Makes enough Peanut Crunch for six people

2. RECOUNT TEXT


Social function recount: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events.

Generic Structure of Recount:
1. Orientation ( who were involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
3. Re-orientation ( optional – closure of events)

Language features Recount:
• Use of pronouns and nouns ( David, he, she)
• Use of action verbs in past (went, studied)
• Use of past tense ( We went for a trip to the zoo)
• Use of adverbial phrases
• Use of adjectives

Example text :
An Excursion to the Botanical Garden
On Thursday 24 April we went to the Botanical Garden. We walked down and boarded the bus.
After we arrived at the garden, we walked down to the Education Centre. The third grade students went to have alook around. First, we went to the first farm and Mrs. James read us some information. Then, we looked at all the lovely plants. After that we went down to a little spot on the Botanical Garden and had a morning tea break.
Next, we did sketching and then we met the fourth grade students at the Education Centre to have lunch. Soon after that, it was time for us to go and make our terrariums while the fourth year students went to have a walk.
A lady took us into a special room and introduced herself. Then she explained what we were going to do. Next, she took us to a pyramid terrarium. It was really interesting.
After we had finished, we met the fourth grade students outside the gardens. Then we reboarded the bus and returned to school.



3. NARRATIVE TEXT

Social function narrative: To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.

Generic Structure Narrative:
1. Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems)
3. Resolution ( provide solution to the problem)

Language features Narrative:
• Use of noun phrases ( a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
• Use of adverbial phrases of time and place ( in the garden, two days ago)
• Use of simple past tense ( He walked away from the village)
• Use of action verbs ( walked, slept)
• Use of adjectives phrases ( long black hair)

Example text :
The Legend Of Surabaya

A long time ago in East Java there were two strong animals, Sura and Baya. Sura was a shark and Baya was a crocodile. They lived in a sea. Actually, they were friends. But when they were hungry, they were very greedy. They did not want to share their food. They would fight for it and never stop fighting until one of them gave up. It was a very hot day. Sura and Baya were looking for some food. Suddenly, Baya saw a goat.
“Yummy, this is my lunch,” said Baya.
“No way! This is my lunch. You are greedy! I had not eaten for two days!” said Sura.
Then Sura and Baya fought again. After several hours, they were very tired. Sura had a plan to stop their bad behavior.
“I’m tired of fighting, Baya,” said Sura.
“Me too. What should we do to stop fighting? Do you have any idea?” asked Baya.
“Yes, I do. Let’s share our territory. I live in the water, so I look for food in the sea. And you live on the land, right? So, you look for the food also on the land. The border is the beach, so we will never meet again. Do you agree?” asked Sura.
“Hmm... let me think about it. OK, I agree. From today, I will never go to the sea again. My place is on the land,” said Baya.
Then they both lived in the different places. But one day, Sura went to the land and looked for some food in the river. He was very hungry and there was not much food in the sea. Baya was very angry when he knew that Sura broke the promise.
“Hey, what are you doing here? This is my place. Your place is in the sea!”
“But, there is water in the river, right? So, this is also my place!” said Sura.
Then Sura and Baya fought again. They both hit each other. Sura bit Baya's tail. Baya did the same thing to Sura. He bit very hard until Sura finally gave up. He went back to the sea. Baya was very happy. He had his place again. The place where they were fighting was a mess. Blood was everywhere. People then always talked about the fight between Sura and Baya. They then named the place of the fight as Surabaya, it’s from Sura the shark and Baya the crocodile. People also put their fight as the symbol of Surabaya city.


4. DESCRIPTION TEXT

Social Function descriptive: To describe a particular person, place or thing.

Generic Structure descriptive:
1. Identification (identify phenomenon to be described)
2. Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics)

Language features descriptive:
• Focus on specific participants
• Use of attributive and identifying processes
• Frequent use classifiers in nominal groups.
• Use of the Simple Present Tense

Example text :

Hi friends! This is my friend Miranda. She comes from Sulawesi. She was born in Makasar on June 12, 1980. her hobbies are singing and swimming. She also likes planting flowers very much. She lives at 12 Jalan Jaya. She lives together with her parents and two sisters. They are Mr. and Mrs Yudhatama, Sherina and Tiara.
Miranda studies at SMP 7. Her older sister is in the first year
of SMA, and Tiara is still in SD. They all love one another.


5. NEWS ITEM TEXT

Social function news item: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.

Generic structure news item:
1. News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form)
2. Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident)
3. Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)

Language features news item:
• Information on the use of head lines.
• Use of action verbs( hit, attack)
• Use of saying verbs( said, added, claimed)
• Use of passive sentences ( Aceh was hit by Tsunami in 2004)
• Use of adverbs in passive sentences (The victims were badly injured)

Example text :

Growing Number of High School Student Smoking
A survey has found about 13 percent of first-time smokers in the country are junior high school students. It also revealed 89 percent of young female employees were smokers.

The survey was conducted in five major cities across the country, including Surakarta in Central Java.

Muhammad Syahril Mansyur, the Surakarta Health Agency’s respiratory illness division, said that the finding of the survey showed an alarming growth rate of Indonesian smokers. "This situation is a cause for concern,” he said. “It appears the country’s younger generation is uneducated about the health risks of smoking.”

The Indonesian anti-tobacco campaign has reportedly been deemed as ineffective as the government refuses to sign the international convention on tobacco control. It said that cigarette producers contributed to a large amount to state revenue and gave jobs to thousands of workers.


6. REPORT TEXT

Social function report: To describe the way things are (for example: a man -made thing, animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class.

Text organization report:
1. General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.)
2. Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour).

Language features report:
• Use of general nouns ( Whales, Kangaroo, Computer)
• Use of present tense(Komodo dragons usually weigh more than 160 kg)
• Use of behavioural verbs (Snakes often sunbathe in the sun)
• Use of technical terms ( Water contains oxygen and hydrogen)
• Use of relating verbs (is, are, has)

Example text :
Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace, and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually celebrated in late autumn. 

In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England. Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the North America and for three days in Canada.

It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held. In Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are lighted to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique silver dishes to mark the occasion.


7. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT

Social function analytical exposition: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something in the case, to analyze or to explain.

Generic Structure analytical exposition:
1. Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writer’s position)
2. Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence)
3. Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented)

Language features analytical exposition:
• Emotive words such as : alarmed, worried.
• Words that qualify statements such as: usual probably
• Words that link arguments such as: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore.
• Usually present tense
• Compound and complex sentences

Example text :
Is Smoking Good for Us?
Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking.
Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers.
Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.
Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else.
8. SPOOF TEXT

Social function spoof: To tell an event with a humorous twist.

Generic structure spoof text:
1. Orientation (who were involved, when and where was happened)
2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
3. Twist (provide the funniest part of the story)

Language features spoof:
• Use of connectives (first, then, finally)
• Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (in the garden, two days ago)
• Use of simple past tense (he walked away from the village)

Example text :
Once Upon A Time 3 (three) women (people of Java, Manado and Papua) to fly from Jayapura to Jakarta.
Suddenly the plane trip amid shaky and it feels like fall.

Instantly Javanese woman had taken the powder and lipstick to dress up pretty, her friend on the confused and
asked, “Why koq grooming?”
He said, “Ordinary if the plane would fall that first helped her the most beautiful.”

Aehhh Menado woman next to them .. can not accept, then she lift her skirt up high.
Friend next to them asked, “Why do you lift the skirt up high so?”

He replied, “Ordinary when the first plane crash that helped her white thighs and white. “
Hehhh .. Papuan women are emotional to hear the two friends next to them babble.
She then undressed and naked bulattt … .. …. everything was black.
His two friends were surprised and asked, “Why so naked?”
With lightly he replied,
“Usually if a plane crashes the most sought my first BLACK BOX.”




9. HORTATORY EXPOSITION TEXT

Social function hortatory exposition: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something should or should not be the case.

Generic structure hortatory exposition:
1. Thesis ( stating an issue of concern)
2. Arguments ( giving reasons for concern, leading recommendation)
3. Recommendation (stating what ought or ought not to happen)

Language features hortatory exposition:
• Emotive words: alarmed, worried
• Words that qualify statements: usual probably
• Words that link arguments: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore
• Usually present tense
• Compound and complex sentences
• Modal auxiliary: can, may, should, must

Example text :
Where Should Be after High School?
The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. In the other hand, It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. For those who succeed soon will think to decide; where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet, it will be quite confusing.
Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. When they think about continuing study, they will think hard about the time and cost. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. In the same way, when they think about straightly seeking job, what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. So, doing both choices in the same time is an alternative.
Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. it will be very hard to looking for job. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. As result, the available time will be more flexible for them. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning.
As the alternative method of studying, besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly, distance learning provides possibility to grow better. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them.
10. EXPLANATION TEXT

Social function explanation: To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena

Generic structure explanation:
1. A general statement to position the reader
2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs
3. Closing

Language features explanation:
• Focus on generic, non-human participants.
• Use mainly of general and abstract nouns, action verbs, simple present tense, passive voice, conjunction of time and cause, noun phrases, complex sentences, and technical language.

Example text :
The Process of Rain

Water in the earth is kept in many places like the ocean, the ocean, the river and the lake. But don't be wrong, the plants leaves and the land also kept water.
Each day, this water will evaporate with help of the sun. The process where water evaporates from plants is called transpiration. Afterwards the vapour will experience the process of condensation where the vapour will condense and turn into a cloud. The form of the cloud always changes according to weather conditions.
The clouds will move to different locations with the help of wind that bellows vertically or horizontally. The movement of the vertical wind results in the cloud forming big 'lumps'. After that, the wind increases the size of the cloud and each cloud will overlap. Finally the cloud will reach the atmosphere that has a lower temperature. Here the particles of water and ice is formed.
Eventually, the wind can not support the weight of the cloud and so the cloud that is full with water will experience a process called precipitation or the process where rain or hail falls to earth.


11. DISCUSSION TEXT

Social function discussion: To present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (“for” points “against” points)

Generic structure discussion:
1. Opening statement presenting the issue
2. Arguments or evidence for different points of view ( pros and cons)
3. Concluding recommendation

Language features discussion:
• Use of general nouns: alcohol, abortion, smoking, etc.
• Use of relating verbs: is, are, etc.
• Use of thinking verbs: think, feel, hope believe, etc.
• Use of additive connectives: addition, furthermore, besides, etc.
• Use of contrastive connectives: although, even, if, nevertheless, etc.
• Use of causal connectives: because, because of, etc.
• Use of modal auxiliary: must, should, etc.
• Use of adverbial manner: hopefully.

Example text :
National Exam: Pro and Contra?

National exam becomes the hot topic in most of discussions. Though the Supreme Court has rejected an appeal by the go-vernment on the organization of the national exams, the controversy over whether it is necessary to maintain the national exams (UN) has continued. Some debates include the primary questions such as; does the quality of Indonesia education depend on the national exam?, will the quality of the Indonesian education system worsen without natipnal exam?

People, who support the national exam explain that the quality of the Indonesia education system will drop without the national exam, so they try to defend the current system.

Hoever there are people who disagree with the opinion. Those who against this national exam kept in our high school education say that it doesn't need the national exams because the quality of education does not just depend on the national exam. Further, the national exam only measures a small portion of students' competence in specific subjects, and does not measure students' competences throughout the semester.

In fact, the national examination can still be useful as an instrument to evaluate or detect the level of students' cognitive competence in several subjects, on a national scale.



12. REVIEW TEXT

Social function review: To critique an art work or event for a public audience

Generic structure review:
1. Orientation ( background information on the text)
2. Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
3. Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
4. Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.

Language features review:
• Focus on specific participants
• Use of adjectives
• Use of long and complex clauses
• Use of metaphor
• Reviews are used to summarize, analyze and respond to art works. They may include: movie, TV shows, books, plays, concerts, etc.
Example text :
The Karate Kid

There’s a lot of new American movie that remake  by the old movie.One of them is The Karate Kid.This movie is the remakes of the old movie with the same title that made in 1984. Fans of Jackie Chan,Jaden Smith and Taraji Hanson will be able to see their idols acting in this movie.The Karate Kid directed by Herald Zwart and the story written by Christopher Murphey and Robert Mark Kamen.
Dre Parker (Jaden Smith) is a 12-year-old boy who lives in Detroit. One day his mother, Sherry (Taraji Henson), moved to China, so that Dre followed his mother  to move to China. Although at first time he felt  dislike with that country and wanted to get back to America, but Dre began to  change when he met a  girl named May Ying (Han Wenwen). Both familiarity, made Cheng (Zhenwei Wang), a friend of May, did not accept. With his kung fu ability, he defeated Dre.
Dre always be distrubed by Cheng, until one day he met with Mr Cheng Han (Jackie Chan), who worked as a custodian officer cleanliness in the apartment where Dre and his mother lived,  help him. When Dre knew that Mr.Han has a kung fu ability,he asked Mr.Han to teach him.At the first time,Mr.Han rejected,but in the end he wanted to teach him with reservations,that Dre had to follow the National Kung Fu Match that will held a few months later,he had to get battle with Cheng and his friends.
The movie that produced by Columbia Picture is better than the old movie because the story has a lot of funny moments and the setting is wonderful. I think we  should be given a thumbs for the director, Harald Zwart, because he succesed to managed the display the beauty of China besides the wall of China. But Also for May Ying character who, although not  so pretty, but she gives the nuances of China in The Karate Kid. The actress brings out this aspect of the movie beautifully. I think,some scenes in this movie that show when Dre had been hit by Cheng is little bit boring and Dre’s expression didn’t show how pain the moment.Overall,The Karate kid is the excellent movie that you should watch.The plot is nice.All of the characters are  developed so well.There’s a humor on that movie.The only one that I can say “Watch the Karate Kid”.You shouldn’t disappointed when you watch it.